Configuring Kerberos for Oracle Databases 11.2 with win2008R2 AD

In this blog entry I try to document how to enable Kerberos. This procedure was actually created and followed during a project at one of my customers.

The Infrastructure

AD
– windows 2008R2 server
– domain : milkyway.space.com
– Kerberos installed and enabled
– DES encryption default disabled

Server :
– moon.milkyway.space.com
– database : crater
– version : 11.2.0.3.4

Client
– windows 7 enterprise edition
– 11.2.0.3 client

The Procedure

  • On the AD server
    • Create a service account in Active Directory for the database server moon to validate the Kerberos tickets with. This user does not need any specific rights but enable “password never expires”. We called this account “ssoval”
    • ensure that you deselect Setup option “Use DES Encryption” and select option “Do not require Kerberos PreAuthentication” for this user
    • Make sure that the SPN is set to the correct realm
      setspn -A oracle/moon.milkyway.space.com@MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM ssoval
      (oracle is just the name of the service, we reuse this name in the kerberos config to point here. This has no connection to service_names of the database.)
    • Extract a keytab file for this user so we don’t need to enter password to create tickets
      ktpass -princ oracle/moon.milkyway.space.com@MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM -crypto all -pass ssoval -mapuser ssoval -out v5srvtab
    • Put this file on the database server. I’ve put it in /etc/v5srvtab
  • On the Database Server “moon”
    • Make sure Advanced Security Option is installed, this is a paying option on top of Enterprise Edition.
    • Generate a kerberos ticket, this will be used for connection to the kerberos server for ticket validation
      $ORACLE_HOME/jdk/bin/kinit -k -t /etc/v5srvtab oracle/moon.milkyway.space.com
      ( You might want to create a crontab job for this so that you always have a valid ticket )
    • Adjust the sqlnet.ora
      SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF=/etc/krb5.conf
      SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB=/etc/v5srvtab
      SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF_MIT=TRUE
      SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE=oracle
      SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES=(BEQ,KERBEROS5)
    • Create the /etc/krb5.conf file
      [libdefaults]
      default_realm = MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM
      [realms]
      MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM = {
      kdc = DC1.MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM:88
      kdc = DC2.MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM:88
      }
      [domain_realm]
      .milkyway.space.com = MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM
      milkyway.space.com = MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM
  • On the Database “crater”
    • Clear OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX
      SQL> alter system set OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX=’’ scope=spfile;
    • Disable remote_os_authent
      SQL> alter system set remote_os_authent=false;
    • restart the database
  • On the Windows Clients
    • Make sure ASO is installed.
    • Adjust the sqlnet.ora
      SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES= (BEQ,KERBEROS5)
      SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF =c:\kerberos\krb5.conf
      SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF_MIT = true
      SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME=OSMSFT://
      This last line is important for windows clients because this reuses the already generated tickets available on the system as a result of your AD login. Hence it enables the SSO login. Keep in mind that the Oracle tool okinit will fail with OSD error if this cache is set when you try to get manual tickets.
    • Create the c:\kerberos\krb5.conf file identical as on the server except for the port numbers
      [libdefaults]
      default_realm = MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM
      [realms]
      MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM = {
      kdc = DC1.MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM
      kdc = DC2.MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM
      }
      [domain_realm]
      .milkyway.space.com = MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM
      milkyway.space.com = MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM
    • Make sure the file services in directory c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc has “kerberos5” in the list as first entry
      kerberos 88/tcp kerberos5 krb5 kerberos-sec #Kerberos
      kerberos 88/udp kerberos5 krb5 kerberos-sec #Kerberos

Now you are ready to use Kerberos Authentication.

Example for an user “Bjorn”

  • Create an user Bjorn on the AD server in domain MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM
    Ensure that you :

    • deselect Setup option “Use DES Encryption”
    • select option “Do not require Kerberos PreAuthentication”

    The username is case sensitive, so make sure you have the correct case.

  • Create an user Bjorn on the database crater
    SQL> create user BJORN IDENTIFIED EXTERNALLY as 'Bjorn@MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM';
    SQL> grant create session to BJORN;
  • Login to the windows desktop and connect to the database over TNS for example :
    C:\> sqlplus /@crater
    CONNECTED

    SQL> show user
    USER is "BJORN"

    SQL> select sys_context('userenv ', 'session_user') from dual;
    SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','SESSION_USER')
    -----------------------------------------
    BJORN

    SQL> select sys_context('userenv','external_name') from dual;
    SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','EXTERNAL_NAME')
    -----------------------------------------------------------------
    Bjorn@MILKYWAY.SPACE.COM

Troubleshooting

  • KDC has no support for encryption type : pre-11gR2 only supports DES encryption. The company where I performed this setup, did not want to enable this legacy protocol ( and rightly so ), so only connections with 11.2 and higher clients to 11.2 and higher databases will work in this setup.
  • Cannot find KDC for requested realm : Make sure your services file is correctly formatted and kerberos5 is the first protocol in the list for port 88

Special thanks to antonio mata gomez from Oracle Belgium for support in this project

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Best Practices for Oracle Linux for Production Systems

I found this needed a blog post because most of the customers I meet, just install their Redhat/Oracle Linux environment and start using it out of the box in production. I believe this list should be included in every post-installation procedure.

  • Hostname : Make sure it’s a FQDN. Especially when you connect with NFS to other systems. If your hostname is not FQDN, locks will not be freed on the NFS server when you reboot.
  • Support : If you have support, make sure you register your system with ULN.
  • Update : Update your system with yum or up2date to the latest version.
  • Hugepages : If you are running Oracle Databases, this is a must. Metalink note. 361468.1
  • Ipmitool : This allows for control over the hardware from inside the OS. Can be very usefull for Cluster setups or automated scripts to collect information.
  • Kexec : This allows the system to dump the kernel-memory to disk whenever a kernel panic occurs. Instead of rebooting or hanging, the system boots into a separate kernel with the task of dumping the memory to disk in the form of a vmcore file. This file can then later be analysed with the crash utility. Don’t forget to test it!!
  • magic sysrq key : This enables some key-strokes in the console to force a kernel to do all sorts of things ( show locks, reboot without FS corruption, … ). It is often used to dump a kernel stacktrace to /var/log/messages and reboot a system after soft hangs ( hangs on console with numlock flashing ). This is default enabled in OL5 but in OL6 you need to enable it manually. Also, make sure you know the keystrokes for when you need them.
  • Oswatcher BB : Monitoring tool of Oracle. Can show you if there were spikes just before or leading to the crash. Metalink note.301137.1
  • vncserver : allows for X11 environment over vnc. Faster then X11 over the net and allows you to continue where you left off when you lose your connection during an installation or configuration.
  • oratop : utility for near real-time monitoring of databases, RAC and Single Instance. Metalink note. 1500864.1.
  • dstat : allows you to view all of your system resources in real-time
  • Rlwrap: Saves you time 😉

If anyone is interested in how to perform some of these tasks, let me know and I’ll consider writing some blog entries about them. But most procedures can be found in the manual or official pages about it. Keep in mind that this list also applies to Oracle Engineered Systems.( ODA, EXADATA, … )

Installing rlwrap on Linux saves you time

Small Blog entry to spread the word. I hate having to manage a Linux system without this 😉 

rlwrap is an utility that allows you to use up and down arrows in the various commands like sqlplus, rman, adrci, … 
To enable it, you only have to do the following : 

  • Install readline-devel

    (root) # yum install readline-devel

  • Download latest rlwrap from http://utopia.knoware.nl/~hlub/uck/rlwrap/ and unzip it somewhere and Compile it.

    (root) # ./configure
    (root) # make
    (root) # make install

  • For OL6 you can use this RPM instead of manually making it:
         http://rpm.pbone.net/index.php3/stat/4/idpl/15282330/dir/redhat_el_6/com/rlwrap-0.37-1.el6.i686.rpm.html

    Then install it with :

    (root) # yum install rlwrap-0.37-1.el6.i686.rpm

  • Configure aliases in .bash_profile so that rlwrap gets enabled when you start the command

    alias sqlplus=”rlwrap sqlplus”
    alias dgmgrl=”rlwrap dgmgrl”
    alias rman=”rlwrap rman”
    alias lsnrctl=”rlwrap lsnrctl”
    alias asmcmd=”rlwrap asmcmd”
    alias adrci=”rlwrap adrci”
    alias impdp=”rlwrap impdp”
    alias expdp=”rlwrap expdp”

You’ll never go back again 😉